1. Making the case that Jesus is greater than all things associated with the Law of Moses, the Holy Spirit now sets forth the words of prophecy as Jeremiah spoke them (Jeremiah 31:31-34). Those who lived under the law, if they would have paid attention, would have known this (cf. John 5:38-40; 6:44:45; Acts 13:27).
2. Since the time Jeremiah spoke these words, that which Jesus came to say and do was all in accordance with the plan of God, thus Jesus said that He came not to abolish, but to fulfill (Matthew 5:17-18).
3. Moses and those who lived under the previous covenant served the copy of what was in heaven. A copy is distinguished from the real, actual.
4. Under the old covenant, God spoke to a nation; they were brought out as a group and taught as a group (nation).
5. Under the new covenant God spoke to (called) the individual into a group (nation, church; 1 Peter 2:9).
6. To a nation, they were taught to live holy (cf. Exodus 19:4-6); great emphasis placed on outward obedience,
7. To the individual, one is taught to live holy (1 Peter 2:5, 9; Hebrews 12:14).
8. Thus, the difference between the two is in to whom it was given. One was given to the nation and one to the individual.