1. Paul begins a summary conclusion to what he has been saying. The physical nation Israel is an enemy of God – because of their disobedience (cf. 1:17). However, in their disobedient attitude, this resulted in the Gospel going from being preached to them to it being preached to the Gentiles.
2. In one respect the nation Israel was the elected of God (9:12-13), but within this elected group the spiritually elected “surfaced” (if you will). From the nation of Israel, a remnant came and those who came were (are) blessed in faithful Abraham. The promises of God came through the forefathers of Israel. So, the nation stands in one respect condemned (because of disobedience) and in another respect blessed because those who are pleasing to God are justified by faith.
3. God is faithful to His will, and what he promised through Abraham, He will not rescind (11:28-29). God does not desire that any perish, and as Paul preached to the Gentiles the saving message of Christ, Paul hoped to move the Jews to consider all over again the message they rejected (11:30-32).
4. As one attempts to figure out how God worked (works) in the scheme of history, unless man turns to God and His revelation, what can he find out? Not one thing. Because Paul knows this, he ends with a word of praise (11:33-36). The remainder of this chapter is simply Paul’s words about the magnificence of the Lord and His glorious plan/ways.