Moses and Aaron were great men of God. However, they were also human and subject to the same human frailties that beset all men. In the first month of the fortieth year in the wilderness, upon God’s command, they had led the Israelites back into the Wilderness of Zin and were camped at Kadesh. Their sister, Miriam had died there and they faced yet another problem—no water. The people had either forgotten or ignored that God had provided water at Rephidim nearly forty years earlier.
With this new crisis and with the murmurs of the Israelites in their ears, Moses and Aaron called on the Lord for help yet another time. At Rephidim, God had instructed Moses to strike the rock for water. On this occasion, He told Moses to speak to the rock and they would get water.
In their frustration, Moses and Aaron gathered the people together and Moses said, “Hear now, you rebels! Must we bring water for you out of this rock?” He then struck the rock twice instead of speaking to it. Fatal mistake!! Moses shifted the production of water from God to himself and Aaron; thus they were forbidden to enter the Promised Land because of it.
The Edomites were descendants of Esau/Edom the brother of Jacob/Israel. After being denied permission from the king of Edom to pass through his country, the Israelites went around Edom and came to Mount Hor.
God was ready to replace Aaron as high priest. He instructed Moses to take Aaron and Aaron’s son, Eleazar to Mount Hor and transfer the priestly garments from Aaron to Eleazar. With that being accomplished, Aaron died and the people mourned thirty days for him.