Vs. 1-7 are a purely prophetic picture of Jesus Christ.
Jesus Christ said this Psalm was written by the Holy Spirit through David (Mark 12:35-36). All commentators who question or challenge this authorship are unworthy of any consideration, and probably are wrong in many other places in their comments! Commentators who cannot see this absolute conclusion about this authorship are blind, and “if the blind leads the blind, both will fall into a ditch” (Matthew 15:14). Psalm 110 is one of the purest, clearest, prophecies of Jesus Christ in the entire Old Testament!
Verse 1: Contains a fact about Jesus Christ being King that is quoted by: Jesus Christ to show that David spoke of Him as “Lord” and not “son”(Matthew 22:41-46); Peter quoted it (Acts 2:30-35) to prove that Jesus Christ was raised from the dead to sit on David’s throne in Heaven; probably Paul (Hebrews 1:13) to show that Jesus Christ is NOT an “angel;” and again by Peter (1 Peter 3:21-22) to show that after Jesus’ resurrection, He has all authority “in heaven and on earth” (as Jesus claimed, Matthew 28:18). “For He must reign till He has put all enemies under His feet. The last enemy that will be destroyed is death” (1 Corinthians 15:25-26).
Verse 2: Jesus began His Kingdom Rule “out of Zion” (often a reference to Jerusalem), for after His resurrection, He went outside of Jerusalem and “was received up into heaven, and sat down at the right hand of God” (Mark 16:19). Anyone who teaches a doctrine that denies that Jesus is now on David’s throne in Heaven is denying that He was raised from the dead and ascended into Heaven.
Verse 3: “Volunteers” describes the free-will obedience of all who follow Jesus today. Jesus commanded “the wind and the sea” to obey and they did (Mark 4:35-41), but Jesus gave people choice as to whether or not to obey Him (John 6:44-45). Paul preached the Gospel to Bereans, who “received the word with all readiness, and searched the Scriptures daily to find out whether these things were so” (Acts 17:11). There never has been forced obedience by the Holy Spirit!
Verse 4: God has sworn that Jesus Christ is “a priest forever:” (1) on David’s throne, He is Priest and King (Zechariah 6:12-13), but on earth, Jesus was not from the priestly tribe under Moses’ Law (Hebrews 7:11-14), therefore David’s throne is not on earth; (2) only Jesus Christ has ever been a “High Priest” “according to the order of Melchizedek” (Hebrews 5:6, 10; 7:11, 17, 21), whose history is in Genesis 14:18-24, and, since no mention is recorded of his beginning, tribe, or death (Hebrews 7:1-4), only Jesus could parallel that background; (3) Jesus, to be High Priest, “has passed through the heavens” (Hebrews 4:14-15) and was “without sin,” which never was true of anyone else who claimed to have “the priesthood of Melchizedek” bestowed upon him.
Verses 5-7: Jesus Christ has been given all judgment (John 5:21-23), and will execute that judgment against “workers of iniquity” on the Day of Judgment (John 5:28-30; Matthew 25:31-46; 2 Corinthians 5:8-10). To “lift up the head” in total and complete victory concludes Jesus’ work, and our “thanks be to God, who gives us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ” (1 Corinthians 15:57); and, “this is the victory that has overcome the world–our faith” (1 John 5:4).
All Scriptures and comments are based upon the New King James Version, unless otherwise noted.